Ever since starting to build characters, I have struggled with trying to understand weapon damage and the merits of modifiers. After someone suggested that a 1d6 weapon with duelling hit stronger than Shillelagh, I decided to invest my time into gathering the info on just how strong single and dual dice weapons would be with up to a +10 modifier. (aka, 1d4,2d4,1d6,2d6,[...], 1d12, and 2d12)
Having composed everything into a nice, short and concise table, I wanted to share my findings with this community, as it has helped me tremendously with understanding D&D beyond my own limitations, and I hope this might help a player in the future who might be having a hard time to wrap their heads around the concepts.
However, I'm posting this question first on Meta as I am not quite sure how to proceed: Should I pose a question like "How can I make sense of the different weapon damages?" and then post my findings in an answer? Or should I post all my findings in the question itself?